**Physics Notes - Herong's Tutorial Notes** - v3.22, by Dr. Herong Yang

Physics Notes - Herong's Tutorial Notes

http://www.herongyang.com/Physics

Copyright © 2021 Dr. Herong Yang. All rights reserved.

This book is a collection of notes on physics. Key sections are: What Is Space; How far is 1 meter; Frame of Reference; Coordinate Systems; What Is Time; How long is 1 second; What Is Speed; Newtons' Laws of Motion; Special Theory of Relativity; Time Dilation; Length Contraction; Minkowski spacetime; Lorentz transformation; Minkowski diagram. Updated in 2021 (Version v3.22) with minor changes.

Table of Contents

Meter Based on Earth's Meridian

Meter Based on Seconds Pendulum

Meter Prefixes and Other Units

List of Various Distances and Lengths

Introducion of Frame of Reference

Frame of Reference with 2 Objects

2-Dimensional Cartesian Coordinate System

3-Dimensional Cartesian Coordinate System

1 Frame of Reference with 2 Coordinate Systems

Second Prefixes and Other Units

Different Speeds Observed in Different Frames

Measuring Speed of Light - Roemer's Method

Measuring Speed of Light - Fizeau's Method

Measuring Speed of Light - Foucault's Method

Falling Ball in Earth Frame of Reference

Falling Ball in Elevator Frame of Reference

Introduction of Special Relativity

Assumptions of Special Relativity

What Is an Inertial Frame of Reference?

The Constancy of the Speed of Light

Time Dilation in Special Relativity

Time Dilation - Moving Clock Is Slower

Demonstration of Time Dilation - Amy on the Train

Demonstration of Time Dilation - Bob on the Ground

Demonstration of Time Dilation - Formula

Elapsed Time between Distant Events

Length Contraction in Special Relativity

Length Contraction - Moving Object Is Shorter

Demonstration of Length Contraction

Length Contraction Formula and Lorentz Factor

Reciprocity of Length Contraction

The Relativity of Simultaneity

What Is the Relativity of Simultaneity?

Formula for the Relativity of Simultaneity?

Moving Frames and Galilean Transformation

Galilean Diagram of Moving Frames

Minkowski Spacetime and Diagrams

What Is Lorentz Transformation?

Constancy of Speed of Light in Minkowski Diagram

Time Dilation in Minkowski Diagram

Length Contraction in Minkowski Diagram

Relativity of Simultaneity in Minkowski Diagram

Invariant Spacetime Interval in Minkowski Diagram

**Keywords:** Physics, Space, Time, Speed, Relativity