Physics Notes - Herong's Tutorial Notes

Copyright © 2021 Dr. Herong Yang. All rights reserved.

Notes on Physics This book is a collection of notes on physics. Key sections are: What Is Space; How far is 1 meter; Frame of Reference; Coordinate Systems; What Is Time; How long is 1 second; What Is Speed; Newtons' Laws of Motion; Special Theory of Relativity; Time Dilation; Length Contraction; Minkowski spacetime; Lorentz transformation; Minkowski diagram. Updated in 2021 (Version v3.22) with minor changes.

Table of Contents

About This Book

Introduction of Space

What Is Space?

What Is Distance?

Meter Based on Earth's Meridian

Meter Based on Seconds Pendulum

Meter Prefixes and Other Units

List of Various Distances and Lengths

Introducion of Frame of Reference

What Is Frame of Reference

Frame of Reference with 2 Objects

What Is Coordinate System

2-Dimensional Cartesian Coordinate System

3-Dimensional Cartesian Coordinate System

1 Frame of Reference with 2 Coordinate Systems

Introducion of Time

What Is Time?

What Is Duration?

Second Prefixes and Other Units

List of Various Durations

Introduction of Speed

What Is Speed?

List of Various Speeds

Different Speeds Observed in Different Frames

Measuring Speed of Light - Roemer's Method

Measuring Speed of Light - Fizeau's Method

Measuring Speed of Light - Foucault's Method

Newton's Laws of Motion

Who Is Newton?

Newton's First Law of Motion

Newton's Second Law of Motion

Falling Ball in Earth Frame of Reference

Falling Ball in Elevator Frame of Reference

Newton's Third Law of Motion

Introduction of Special Relativity

Assumptions of Special Relativity

What Is an Inertial Frame of Reference?

The Principle of Relativity

The Constancy of the Speed of Light

Time Dilation in Special Relativity

Time Dilation - Moving Clock Is Slower

Demonstration of Time Dilation - Amy on the Train

Demonstration of Time Dilation - Bob on the Ground

Demonstration of Time Dilation - Formula

What Is Lorentz Factor?

Reciprocity of Time Dilation

Elapsed Time between Distant Events

Length Contraction in Special Relativity

Length Contraction - Moving Object Is Shorter

Demonstration of Length Contraction

Length Contraction Formula and Lorentz Factor

Reciprocity of Length Contraction

The Relativity of Simultaneity

What Is the Relativity of Simultaneity?

Formula for the Relativity of Simultaneity?

Introduction of Spacetime

What Is Spacetime?

What Is World Line?

What Is Light Cone?

Moving Frames and Galilean Transformation

Galilean Diagram of Moving Frames

Minkowski Spacetime and Diagrams

What Is Minkowski Spacetime?

Events Interval and Relations

What Is Lorentz Transformation?

What Is Minkowski Diagram?

Constancy of Speed of Light in Minkowski Diagram

Time Dilation in Minkowski Diagram

Length Contraction in Minkowski Diagram

Relativity of Simultaneity in Minkowski Diagram

Invariant Spacetime Interval in Minkowski Diagram

Multiple Reference Frames in Minkowski Diagram


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Keywords: Physics, Space, Time, Speed, Relativity