Computer History Notes - Herong's Tutorial Notes

Copyright © 2003-2022 Herong Yang. All rights reserved.

Computer History This book is a collection of notes on computer history. Topics include: 1957: FORTRAN Language by IBM; 1970: UNIX OS by AT&T Bell Labs; 1971: FTP by Abhay Bhushan; 1972: C Language by Dennis Ritchie; 1976: vi Editor by Bill Joy; 1977: Apple II by Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak; 1977: The Bourne Shell by Stephen Bourne; 1978: The C Shell by Bill Joy; 1983: 'Sendmail' by Eric Allman; 1984: Macintosh by Apple Inc.; 1984: X Window System by a MIT Team; 1991: WWW by Tim Berners-Lee; 1991: Gopher by a University of Minnesota Team; 1995: Java Developed by Sun Microsystems; 1995: PHP by Rasmus Lerdorf; 2002: .NET by Microsoft. Updated in 2022 (Version v3.13) with minor changes.

Table of Contents

About This Book

2002 - .NET Framework Developed by Microsoft

Introduction of .NET Framework

HelloCLR.cs - Sample Application in C#

HelloCLR.vb - Sample Application in VB

1995 - PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor Created by Rasmus Lerdorf

Introduction of PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor

PHP Script Source Code File Format

1995 - Java Language Developed by Sun Microsystems

What Is Java Language

Java Compilation and Execution Processes

Java Is Platform Independent

Java Is an Object-Oriented Language

Java Supports Automatic Garbage Collection

Java Supports Multi-Threading Programming

1991 - WWW (World Wide Web) Developed by Tim Berners-Lee

WWW and First Web Server

Tim Berners-Lee - Father of the Web

Mosaic - The Browser Popularized the Web

Netscape Navigator - The Most Popular Web Browser in 1990s

Internet Explorer - The Most Popular Web Browser since 1999

Mozilla Firefox - The Most Popular Open Source Web Browser

1991 - Gopher Protocol Created by a University of Minnesota Team

What Is Gopher

Gopher Menu Item Types

Setting Up a Gopher Server on Linux Systems

".names" File Example

1984 - X Window System Developed a MIT Team

What Is X Window System

XFree86 - Open Source Implementation of X

X Window Terminals

1984 - Macintosh Developed by Apple Inc.

Macintosh - The First GUI Based Personal Computer

System Software - The Original Mac OS Operating System

Macintosh Models and Release Years

1983 - "Sendmail" Mail Transfer Agent Developed by Eric Allman

What Is Sendmail

Using Sendmail as a Mail User Agent (MUA)

Pushing an Email Message in Mail Queue

Using Sendmail as a STMP Server Daemon

1979 - The Tcsh (TENEX C Shell) Developed by Ken Greer

What Is Tcsh

Tcsh Command Line Examples

Tcsh Shell Script File Examples

1978 - Bash (Bourne-Again Shell) Developed by Brian Fox

What Is Bash (Bourne-Again Shell)

Bash Command Line Examples

Bash Shell Script File Examples

1978 - The C Shell Developed by Bill Joy

What Is the C Shell

C Shell Command Line

Command Line History Substitution

Command Line Alias Substitution

Command Line Input and Output Redirection

Command Line Variable Substitution

C Shell Command Line Examples

".cshrc" - C Shell Script File and

1977 - The Bourne Shell Developed by Stephen Bourne

What Is the Bourne Shell

Bourne Shell Command Line Examples

Bourne Shell Script File Examples

1977 - Apple II Designed by Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak

Apple II - The First Personal Computer

Apple II Different Models

VisiCalc - The First Spreadsheet Application

Apple Writer - The Most Popular Word Processor

ADT - Apple Disk Transfer

1976 - vi Text Editor Developed by Bill Joy

What Is vi Text Editor

'vi' Commands to Move Cursor and Search for Locations

'vi' Commands to Insert and Change Text

'vi' Miscellaneous Commands in 'ex' Line Mode

1974 - Internet by Vinton Cerf

What Is The Internet

What Is Internet Gateway

What Is Telnet

What Is FTP (File Transfer Protocol)

1972 - C Language Developed by Dennis Ritchie

What Is C Language

TCC - Tiny C Compiler

Compilation and Execution Process of C Programs

GNU C Compiler

Sample C Program for Arrays and Pointers

Sample C Program for Dynamic Memory Allocation - malloc()

1971 - FTP Protocol Created by Abhay Bhushan

What Is FTP

Example of Downloading Files

Example of Uploading Files

Anonymous FTP Servers

FTP Client Program Standard Commands

1970 - UNIX Operating System Developed by AT&T Bell Labs

What Is UNIX

Command Interpreters and Command Pipelines

UNIX File System Hierarchy

1957 - FORTRAN Language Developed by IBM


Storing FORTRAN Program Code on Punch Cards

FORTRAN 66 - Example Program Code

FORTRAN 77 - Example Program Code

g77 - GNU Project FORTRAN Compiler

Fortran 90 - Example Program Code


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Keywords: History, Computer