What Is FORTRAN?

This section provides a quick introduction of FORTRAN language, a general-purpose and procedural programming language.

FORTRAN is a general-purpose and procedural programming language developed in 1957 a team IBM team led by John Backus. FORTRAN is the short name for "The IBM Mathematical Formula Translating System".

In 1957, IBM delivered the first FORTRAN compiler on IBM 704 mainframe computers. This first version of FORTRAN supported 32 statements.

In 1966, American Standards Association released the first industry standard specification of FORTRAN language: "ANSI X3.9-1966 - USA Standard FORTRAN". This version of FORTRAN is known as FORTRAN 66.

Later in 1978, ANSI published a major revision of FORTRAN 66: "ANSI X3.9-1978 - American National Standard - Programming Language FORTRAN". This version of FORTRAN is known as FORTRAN 77.

The next major revision of FORTRAN language was published in 1991 by ISO: "ISO/IEC 9593-1:1990 - Information processing systems - Computer graphics - Programmer's Hierarchical Interactive Graphics System (PHIGS) language bindings - Part 1: FORTRAN". This version of FORTRAN is known as Fortran 90. The name was changed from FORTRAN to Fortran because of this version introduced lowercase keywords support.

In 2003, another major revision was published by ISO: "ISO/IEC JTC1/SC22/WG5 N1578 - Information technology - Programming languages - Fortran", known as Fortran 2003

The picture below shows the cover page the IBM manual: "Programmer's Reference Manual - Fortran - Automatic Code System for the IBM 704" published in 1956 (Source: www.fh-jena.de):
The C Programming Language

Table of Contents

 About This Book

1957 - FORTRAN Language Developed by IBM

What Is FORTRAN?

 Storing FORTRAN Program Code on Punch Cards

 FORTRAN 66 - Example Program Code

 FORTRAN 77 - Example Program Code

 g77 - GNU Project FORTRAN Compiler

 Fortran 90 - Example Program Code

 1970 - UNIX Operating System Developed by AT&T Bell Labs

 1971 - FTP Protocol Created by Abhay Bhushan

 1972 - C Language Developed by Dennis Ritchie

 1976 - vi Text Editor Developed by Bill Joy

 1977 - Apple II Designed by Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak

 1977 - The Bourne Shell Developed by Stephen Bourne

 1978 - The C Shell Developed by Bill Joy

 1978 - Bash (Bourne-Again Shell) Developed by Brian Fox

 1979 - The Tcsh (TENEX C Shell) Developed by Ken Greer

 1983 - "Sendmail" Mail Transfer Agent Developed by Eric Allman

 1984 - Macintosh Developed by Apple Inc.

 1984 - X Window System Developed a MIT Team

 1991 - WWW (World Wide Web) Developed by Tim Berners-Lee

 1991 - Gopher Protocol Created by a University of Minnesota Team

 1995 - Java Language Developed by Sun Microsystems

 1995 - PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor Created by Rasmus Lerdorf

 2002 - .NET Framework Developed by Microsoft

 References

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