What Is UNIX?

This section provides a quick introduction of UNIX operating system, a multi-tasking and multi-user operating system.

UNIX is a multi-tasking and multi-user operating system, originally developed on a PDP-11/20 computer by a team of AT&T Bell Labs employees, including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, Douglas McIlroy and Rudd Canaday in 1970.

UNIX was initially called "Unics", because it was based on a previous experimental operating system called "Multics".

The first version of UNIX was written in PDP-11/20 assembly language and had only two application programs: a text formatting program called "roff" and a text editor.

In 1973, UNIX was rewritten in the C programming language and became a portable operating system. Since them, UNIX has been ported to a wide range of computers.

Main features of UNIX operating systems:

The picture below shows a PDP-11/20 computer, on which UNIX was originally developed (Source: http://www.olddec.nl/).
PDP-11/20 Computer Produced by DEC in 1970

Table of Contents

 About This Book

 1957 - FORTRAN Language Developed by IBM

1970 - UNIX Operating System Developed by AT&T Bell Labs

What Is UNIX?

 Command Interpreters and Command Pipelines

 UNIX File System Hierarchy

 1971 - FTP Protocol Created by Abhay Bhushan

 1972 - C Language Developed by Dennis Ritchie

 1976 - vi Text Editor Developed by Bill Joy

 1977 - Apple II Designed by Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak

 1977 - The Bourne Shell Developed by Stephen Bourne

 1978 - The C Shell Developed by Bill Joy

 1978 - Bash (Bourne-Again Shell) Developed by Brian Fox

 1979 - The Tcsh (TENEX C Shell) Developed by Ken Greer

 1983 - "Sendmail" Mail Transfer Agent Developed by Eric Allman

 1984 - Macintosh Developed by Apple Inc.

 1984 - X Window System Developed a MIT Team

 1991 - WWW (World Wide Web) Developed by Tim Berners-Lee

 1991 - Gopher Protocol Created by a University of Minnesota Team

 1995 - Java Language Developed by Sun Microsystems

 1995 - PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor Created by Rasmus Lerdorf

 2002 - .NET Framework Developed by Microsoft


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