What Is C Language?
This section provides a quick introduction of C language, a general purpose and procedural programming language that supports memory address pointers and dynamic memory allocation.
C is a general purpose programming language developed in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie at Bell Labs.
Initially, there was no formal specification of C language.
The book "The C Programming Language" by Brian Kernighan and Dennis Ritchie published in 1978
served as the informal specification for the first version of C language.
In 1989, American National Standards Institute (ANSI) established a standard specification of C language
called: "ANSI X3.159-1989 - Programming Language C".
In 1999, a major revision of ANSI C specification was published
by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), "ISO/IEC 9899:1999 - Programming Languages - C".
Main features of C language:
- C is a procedural programming language, not an object-oriented programming language. C programs are organized
as modules and functions.
- C supports low-level access to memory using address pointers. This makes C language a choice for implementing
- C supports array data structure with two ways to access array elements, indexes and pointers.
- C supports dynamic memory allocation, which helps to reduce the size of object file generated by the compiler,
and allow arrays to be declared with sizes determined at runtime.
- C supports a large number of library routines for input/output operations, string manipulations,
mathematical functions, etc.
- C uses a header file to share declarations of variables and functions of a program module with other modules.
- C does not do bounds checking on arrays. This often leads to un-desired behaviors during program execution.
The picture below shows the cover page the book: "The C Programming Language"
by Brian Kernighan and Dennis Ritchie published in 1978:
Table of Contents
About This Book
1957 - FORTRAN Language Developed by IBM
1970 - UNIX Operating System Developed by AT&T Bell Labs
1971 - FTP Protocol Created by Abhay Bhushan
►1972 - C Language Developed by Dennis Ritchie
►What Is C Language?
TCC - Tiny C Compiler
Compilation and Execution Process of C Programs
GNU C Compiler
Sample C Program for Arrays and Pointers
Sample C Program for Dynamic Memory Allocation - malloc()
1976 - vi Text Editor Developed by Bill Joy
1977 - Apple II Designed by Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak
1977 - The Bourne Shell Developed by Stephen Bourne
1978 - The C Shell Developed by Bill Joy
1978 - Bash (Bourne-Again Shell) Developed by Brian Fox
1979 - The Tcsh (TENEX C Shell) Developed by Ken Greer
1983 - "Sendmail" Mail Transfer Agent Developed by Eric Allman
1984 - Macintosh Developed by Apple Inc.
1984 - X Window System Developed a MIT Team
1991 - WWW (World Wide Web) Developed by Tim Berners-Lee
1991 - Gopher Protocol Created by a University of Minnesota Team
1995 - Java Language Developed by Sun Microsystems
1995 - PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor Created by Rasmus Lerdorf
2002 - .NET Framework Developed by Microsoft
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