Block Devices and Partitions
This chapter provides tutorial examples on block devices and partitions. Topics include understanding block devices, partition tables and partitions; using 'hdparm -i' command to display device information; differences between MBR and GPT partition table (disklabel) types; using 'parted' commands to manage partition table and partitions; using 'mkfs' command to format partitions; understanding 'dev/sd?' and '/dev/sd??' device files; shrinking or expanding 'ext4' file systems
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What Is Block Device
"/dev/sd?" - Block Device Files
"hdparm" - Hard Disk Parameters
Partition Table and Its Types
"parted ... mktable" - Create Partition Table
What Is Partition and Its Types
"parted ... mkpart" - Create Partition
"/dev/sd??" - Partition Device Files
File System Types, IDs and Formats
"mkfs -t ext..." - Format Partition
Shrink "ext4" File System and Partition
Expand "ext4" File System and Partition
"parted" - Partition Manipulation Program
"fdisk" - Format Disk Partitions
- A block device is a data storage device that supports reading and optionally writing data in fixed-size blocks.
- A byte device is a data storage device that supports reading and writing data one byte at a time.
- "hdparm -i ..." displays identification information on the given device.
- "/dev/sd?" are device files representing block devices connected with the SCSI protocol.
- A partition table is a data structure written on a block device to record and manage multiple partitions on the block device.
- "Disklabel" refers to partition table on a block device.
- GPT (GUID Partition Table) is a newer partition table type introduced
as part of the Unified Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI) booting process.
- MBR (Master Boot Record) is an older partition table type
introduced in MS-DOS operating systems that using the BIOS booting process.
- "Disklabel type: dos" or "Disklabel type: msdos" refers to
MBR partition table type.
- "parted ... mktable" creates a new partition table on a block device.
- "parted -l" and "fdisk -l" displays all block devices,
their partition tables and related information.
- A partition is a region of multiple continuous blocks (or sectors) managed by the partition table on a block device.
- A primary partition is a partition to store user data managed by the MBR partition table directly.
- An extended partition is a partition to be divided further into more logical partitions.
- A logical partition is a partition to store user data managed inside an extended partition.
- "parted ... print" lists all partitions in the partition table on the given device.
- "parted ... mkpart ..." creates a new partition in a partition table.
- "/dev/sd??" are device files representing partitions created on storage devices
that are connected to the Linux system using the SCSI protocol.
- "parted ... rm ..." removes an existing partition in a partition table.
- "mkfs ..." formats a given partition for the given file system type.
- "resize2fs" shrinks and expands file system's size.
- "parted resizepart" shrinks and expands partition's size, which should be
larger than its file system size.
Table of Contents
About This Book
Introduction to Linux Systems
Cockpit - Web Portal for Administrator
Files and Directories
Users and Groups
►Block Devices and Partitions
LVM (Logical Volume Manager)
SELinux - Security-Enhanced Linux
Network Connection on CentOS
Internet Networking Tools
Software Package Manager on CentOS - DNF and YUM
vsftpd - Very Secure FTP Daemon
Postfix - Mail Transport Agent (MTA)
Dovecot - IMAP and POP3 Server
Email Client Tools - Mail User Agents (MUA)
LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol)
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