**Java Tutorials - Herong's Tutorial Examples** - v8.21, by Dr. Herong Yang

Bitwise Operations on "byte" Values

This section describes 4 types of bitwise operations, 'And', 'Or', 'Exclusive Or', and 'Complement' that applies on 'byte' values indirectly through 'int' values.

**What is a bitwise operation?**
A bitwise operation is an operation that requires the operand(s) to be represented
in a binary format, and applies the operation one bit at a time.

Interestingly, Java defines bitwise operations on "int" data type values, not on "byte" data type values. So a bitwise operation requires that the involved "int" values to be represented into a 32-bit binary format. And the operation will be applied 1 bit at a time repeating 32 times.

Java defines 4 bitwise operations called: "And", "Or", "Exclusive Or", and "Complement"

1. Bitwise operation "And" - "&": The bitwise "And" operation between two "int" values can be described as:

- Representing two operands, two "int" values, into two 32-bit long input binary strings.
- Combining those two input binary strings into one 32-bit long output binary string, such that the value of any bit in the output binary string is 1, if and only if both corresponding bits in the input binary strings are 1.
- Converting the output binary string to an "int" value as the operation result.

The following diagram gives an example of "&" operations in 3 formats:

Decimal Hex Binary 858993459 33333333 00110011 00110011 00110011 00110011 & 1431655765 & 55555555 & 01010101 01010101 01010101 01010101 ------------ ---------- ------------------------------------- = 286331153 = 11111111 = 00010001 00010001 00010001 00010001

2. Bitwise operation "Or" - "|": The bitwise "Or" operation between two "int" values can be described as:

- Representing two operands, two "int" values, into two 32-bit long input binary strings.
- Combining those two input binary strings into one 32-bit long output binary string, such that the value of any bit in the output binary string is 0, if and only if both corresponding bits in the input binary strings are 0.
- Converting the output binary string to an "int" value as the operation result.

The following diagram gives an example of "|" operations in 3 formats:

Decimal Hex Binary 858993459 33333333 00110011 00110011 00110011 00110011 | 1431655765 | 55555555 | 01010101 01010101 01010101 01010101 ------------ ---------- ------------------------------------- = 2004318071 = 77777777 = 01110111 01110111 01110111 01110111

3. Bitwise operation "Exclusive Or" - "^": The bitwise "Exclusive Or" operation between two "int" values can be described as:

- Representing two operands, two "int" values, into two 32-bit long input binary strings.
- Combining those two input binary strings into one 32-bit long output binary string, such that the value of any bit in the output binary string is 1, if and only if one of the corresponding bits in the input binary strings is 1.
- Converting the output binary string to an "int" value as the operation result.

The following diagram gives an example of "^" operations in 3 formats:

Decimal Hex Binary 858993459 33333333 00110011 00110011 00110011 00110011 ^ 1431655765 ^ 55555555 ^ 01010101 01010101 01010101 01010101 ------------ ---------- ------------------------------------- = 1717986918 = 66666666 = 01100110 01100110 01100110 01100110

4. Bitwise operation "Complement" - "~": The bitwise "Complement" operation on one "int" value can be described as:

- Representing the only operand, one "int" value, into one 32-bit long input binary string.
- Derive from the input binary string into one 32-bit long output binary string, such that the value of any bit in the output binary string is 1, if and only if the corresponding bit in the input binary string is 0.
- Converting the output binary string to an "int" value as the operation result.

The following diagram gives an example of "~" operations in 3 formats:

Decimal Hex Binary ~ 858993459 ~ 33333333 ~ 00110011 00110011 00110011 00110011 ------------ ---------- ------------------------------------- = 3233857728 = C0C0C0C0 = 11001100 11001100 11001100 11001100

Table of Contents

Execution Process, Entry Point, Input and Output

Primitive Data Types and Literals

►Bits, Bytes, Bitwise and Shift Operations

"byte" Data Type and Implicit Casting

Operations on "byte" Data Type Values

►Bitwise Operations on "byte" Values

Bitwise Operations on "byte" Values - Example Program

Shift Operations - Left, Right or Unsigned Right

Managing Bit Strings in Byte Arrays

Reference Data Types and Variables

StringBuffer - The String Buffer Class

System Properties and Runtime Object Methods

Generic Classes and Parameterized Types

Generic Methods and Type Inference

Lambda Expressions and Method References

Java Modules - Java Package Aggregation

Execution Threads and Multi-Threading Java Programs

ThreadGroup Class and "system" ThreadGroup Tree

Synchronization Technique and Synchronized Code Blocks

Deadlock Condition Example Programs

Garbage Collection and the gc() Method

Assert Statements and -ea" Option