IP Multicast and IP Address Range
This section provides a quick introduction of IP Multicast communication and IP address range, from 220.127.116.11 to 18.104.22.168, reserved for multicast.
MS08-001 vulnerability is around Windows' handling of the IGMP and MLD protocols, which
are used to control multicast traffic over the network. So let's learn some basics about multicast
communication in this section first.
What Is Multicast? Multicast is a network communication technology for the delivery of information
to a group of destinations simultaneously using the most efficient strategy.
If multiple destinations are on a single physical network, only a single copy of the message needs to be
transferred on that network.
On the Internet network, multicast is also called IP Multicast. It uses a multicast group address
to link message sources and receivers together.
A multicast group address is any IP address in the IP address range from 22.214.171.124 to 126.96.36.199.
This range of IP addresses are reserved for IP Multicast communications only.
Some of reserved IP addresses are registered for special purposes:
- 188.8.131.52 - Base address (reserved)
- 184.108.40.206 - The All Hosts multicast group that contains all systems on the same network segment
- 220.127.116.11 - The All Routers multicast group that contains all routers on the same network segment
- 18.104.22.168 - The Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) AllSPFRouters address. Used to send Hello packets to all OSPF routers on a network segment
- 22.214.171.124 - The OSPF AllDRouters address. Used to send OSPF routing information to OSPF designated routers on a network segment
- 126.96.36.199 - The RIP Version 2 group address. Used to send RIP routing information to all RIP v2 routers on a network segment
- 188.8.131.52 - EIGRP group address. Used to send EIGRP routing information to all EIGRP routers on a network segment
- 184.108.40.206 - Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol
- 220.127.116.11 - IGMP Version 3 (Internet Group Management Protocol)
- 18.104.22.168 - Hot Standby Router Protocol Version 2
- 22.214.171.124 - Multicast DNS address
- 126.96.36.199 - Cisco-RP-Announce address
- 188.8.131.52 - H.323 Gatekeeper discovery address
Last update: 2008.
Table of Contents
About This Windows Security Book
Windows 8: System Security Review
Windows 8: System Security Protection
Windows 8 System Recovery
Windows 8 Defender for Real-Time Protection
Windows 7: System Security Review
Windows 7: System Security Protection
Windows 7 System Recovery
Windows 7 Forefront Client Security
Norton Power Eraser - Anti-Virus Scan Tool
McAfee Virus and Malware Protection Tools
Spybot - Spyware Blocker, Detection and Removal
Keeping Firefox Secure
Keeping IE (Internet Explorer) Secure
Malware (Adware, Spyware, Trojan, Worm, and Virus)
HijackThis - Browser Hijacker Diagnosis Tool
IE Add-on Program Listing and Removal
"Conduit Search" - Malware Detection and Removal
"Tube Dimmer", "Scorpion Saver" or "Adpeak" Malware
Malware Manual Removal Experience
Vundo (VirtuMonde/VirtuMundo) - vtsts.dll Removal
Trojan and Malware "Puper" Description and Removal
VSToolbar (VSAdd-in.dll) - Description and Removal
PWS (Password Stealer) Trojan Infection Removal
►MS08-001 Vulnerability on Windows Systems
MS08-001 - Vulnerability in TCP/IP
►IP Multicast and IP Address Range
"netsh" Commands for Interface IP
184.108.40.206 - The All Hosts Multicast Group
MulticastListener.java - A Simple Multicast Listener Program
All Hosts Multicast Group, 220.127.116.11, on Vista Systems
MS08-001 Vulnerability Explanation by Microsoft
Antivirus System PRO
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