Java Strings as Unicode Encoded Byte Sequences

This section provides a tutorial example on how to use Java String data type to enter non-ASCII character as Unicode characters. Java Servlet technology is smart to convert Unicode characters into the encoding specified in the setContentType() call.

Let's try option 2 mentioned in the previous section now, which uses Java Strings to enter non-ASCII characters as Unicode characters. Java Servlet technology can automatically convert them in the HTML response in any other specified encoding. Here is my sample JSP page, HelpGB2312Unicode.jspx:

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<jsp:root xmlns:jsp="" version="2.3">
<!-- HelpGB2312Unicode.jspx
 - Copyright (c) 2006 All Rights Reserved.
   response.setContentType("text/html; charset=gb2312");
   out.println("<meta http-equiv=\"Content-Type\""
      + " content=\"text/html; charset=gb2312\"/>");
      + "\u7684\u8bf4\u660e\u4e66\u2026</p>");

When I opened HelpGB2312Unicode.jspx with IE, I saw Chinese characters correctly displayed on the screen. Remember I have Unicode Chinese fonts installed on my system. So option 2 works! But note that:

If your Chinese text is in GB2312 encoding format, you need to convert the text to Unicode codes in "\u" format. One good tool for this is native2ascii from JDK 1.8 or older. Here is a sample command to convert HelpGB2312.html:

herong> native2ascii -encoding gb2312 HelpGB2312.html test.html

You could also enter non ASCII characters as Unicode codes in UTF-8 format. This is very easy to do, if you have a special text editor that supports Unicode UTF-8 encoding and input interface for your local language characters.

Table of Contents

 About This Book

 JSP (JavaServer Pages) Overview

 Tomcat Installation on Windows Systems

 JSP Scripting Elements

 Java Servlet Introduction

 JSP Implicit Objects

 Syntax of JSP Pages and JSP Documents

 JSP Application Session

 Managing Cookies in JSP Pages

 JavaBean Objects and "useBean" Action Elements

 Managing HTTP Response Header Lines

Non-ASCII Characters Support in JSP Pages

 Characters Traveling from JSP Files to Browser Screens

 Handling ASCII Characters in JSP Pages

 Presenting Non ASCII Characters in HTML Documents

 Entering Non ASCII Characters in JSP Pages

 Java Strings as non-Unicode Encoded Byte Sequences

Java Strings as Unicode Encoded Byte Sequences

 Entering Non-ASCII Characters as Static Text

 Static HTML Text in HTML Page

 Static HTML Text in JSP Page in Standard Syntax

 Static HTML Text in JSP Page in XML Syntax

 Supporting Characters in Multiple Languages

 Performance of JSP Pages

 EL (Expression Language)

 Overview of JSTL (JSP Standard Tag Libraries)

 JSTL Core Library

 JSP Custom Tags

 JSP Java Tag Interface

 Custom Tag Attributes

 Multiple Tags Working Together

 File Upload Test Application

 Using Tomcat on CentOS Systems

 Using Tomcat on macOS Systems

 Connecting to SQL Server from Servlet

 Developing Web Applications with Servlet

 Archived Tutorials


 Full Version in PDF/EPUB