Major Changes in XML 1.1

This section describes major changes introduced in XML 1.1 comparing with XML 1.0.

What are the major changes in XML 1.1? According the Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.1 specification (Second Edition, published in September 2006), here are my understanding of major changes introduced in XML 1.1 over XML 1.0:

1. Definition of Name Characters - This change is described in the XML 1.1 specification as: "The overall philosophy of names has changed since XML 1.0. Whereas XML 1.0 provided a rigid definition of names, wherein everything that was not permitted was forbidden, XML 1.1 names are designed so that everything that is not forbidden (for a specific reason) is permitted. Since Unicode will continue to grow past version 4.0, further changes to XML can be avoided by allowing almost any character, including those not yet assigned, in names."

It sounds to me that XML 1.0 defines a fixed set of valid characters for creating names, and XML 1.1 defines an open set of valid characters. I need to find an example of an element name with a character that is valid in XML 1.1 but not valid in XML 1.0.

2. End-of-Line Handling - The end-of-line normalization rule has been expanded to include the New Line (NEL) character, #x85, used on IBM mainframe computers and the Unicode line separator character, #x2028. The end-of-line normalization can be summarized as:

#x0D#x0A   --> #x0A
#x0D#x85   --> #x0A
#x85       --> #x0A
#x2028     --> #x0A
#x0D (not followed by #x0A or #x85)   --> #x0A

3. Control Characters - Control characters from #x01 to #x1F are now allowed in XML 1.1 as character references. Control characters from #x7F to #x9F are now not allowed in XML 1.1 directly, but still allowed as character references.

4. Full Normalization - XML document creators should adhere to full normalization constraints defined in XML 1.1. And document processors should verify them. Using fully normalized documents ensures that identity comparisons of names, attribute values, and character content can be made correctly by simple binary comparison of Unicode strings.

For the XML reference document, see "Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.1 (Second Edition)" at

Table of Contents

 About This Book

 Introduction of XML (eXtensible Markup Language)

 XML File Syntax

 XML File Browsers

 XML-JSON Document Conversion

 DOM (Document Object Model) Programming Interface

 SAX (Simple API for XML) Programming Interface

 DTD (Document Type Definition) Introduction

 Syntaxes of DTD Statements

 Validating an XML Document against the Specified DTD Document Type

 XSD (XML Schema Definition) Introduction

 Syntaxes of XSD Statements

 Validating XML Documents Against Specified XML Schemas

 XSL (Extensible Stylesheet Language) Introduction

 Java Implementation of XSLT

 XSLT (XSL Transformations) Introduction

 XPath (XML Path) Language

 XSLT Elements as Programming Statements

 Control and Generate XML Element in the Result

 PHP Extensions for XML Manipulation

 Processing XML with Python Scripts

 XML Notepad - XML Editor

 XML Tools Plugin for Notepad++

 XML Plugin Packages for Atom Editor

XML 1.1 Changes and Parsing Examples

Major Changes in XML 1.1

 Supporting XML 1.1 in Java and Higher

 Control Codes Supported in XML 1.1

 Unicode Characters Supported in XML 1.1 Names

 End-of-Line Characters Supported in XML 1.1

 Web Browsers Not Supporting XML 1.1

 Archived Tutorials


 Full Version in PDF/EPUB