Localization of Web Based Applications
This section describes what are involved in localization of a Web based application, which uses multiple programs: Web browser, Web server, application server, and database server.
Managing character strings of a specific language in a Web based application is not a simple task,
because there are a number of software components involved in a typical Web based application.
We have to understand how each of them manages character strings and how we transfer character strings
from one component to another component.
First, let me try to abstract software programs involved in a Web application into the following list:
- Web browser: End user interface program responsible for presenting and taking characters to and from users.
- Web server: Communication program responsible for forwarding characters between Web browser and
- Application program: Program developed by you for processing characters received from the Web server
and/or retrieved from the database server.
- Database server: Storage program responsible for storing characters.
- Development environment: Software program responsible for embedding characters into the source code of
the application program.
Before we get into details of how characters are handled in those programs, we need to understand how
characters of a specific language are represented in computers. Here is my understanding:
- Characters of English language can be represented by ASCII encoding schema. ASCII encoding schema
represents one English character into one byte.
- Characters of a non English language can be represented either in Unicode encoding schema or in a specific
encoding scheme designed for that language. For example, characters of simplified Chinese can be represented
either in Unicode or in GB2312. Characters of Japanese can be represented either in Unicode or in Shift-JIS.
- Unicode encoding schema has several encoding variations: Unicode internal code, UTF-8, UTF16, etc.
To read more about character encoding and Unicode, see my other book: "Herong's tutorial notes on Unicode".
Last update: 2019.
Table of Contents
About This Book
Introduction and Installation of PHP 7.3
PHP Script File Syntax
PHP Data Types and Data Literals
Variables, References, and Constants
Expressions, Operations and Type Conversions
Conditional Statements - "if" and "switch"
Loop Statements - "while", "for", and "do ... while"
Function Declaration, Arguments, and Return Values
Arrays - Ordered Maps
Introduction of Class and Object
Integrating PHP with Apache Web Server
Retrieving Information from HTTP Requests
Creating and Managing Sessions in PHP Scripts
Sending and Receiving Cookies in PHP Scripts
Controlling HTTP Response Header Lines in PHP Scripts
MySQL Server Connection and Access Functions
Functions to Manage Directories, Files and Images
SOAP Extension Function and Calling Web Services
SOAP Server Functions and Examples
►Localization Overview of Web Applications
What Is Localization / Internationalization
►Localization of Web Based Applications
Character String Traveling Paths
Output ASCII Character Strings from PHP Scripts
Using Non-ASCII Characters in HTML Documents
Using Non-ASCII Characters as PHP Script String Literals
Receiving Non-ASCII Characters from Input Forms
"mbstring" Extension and Non-ASCII Encoding Management
Managing Non-ASCII Character Strings with MySQL Servers
Configuring and Sending out Emails
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